Dark circles, also known as periorbital circles, periorbital hyperpigmentation or periorbital melanosisis are dark blemishes around the eyes.They may or may not be associated with undereye puffiness, bags, malar festoons etc.
The Blue circles are formed due to pooling of deoxygenated blood in under-eye skin. As skin on this part is very thin, so blood shows through. However brown/black dark circles are most commonly found. They are formed due to thinning of skin, fat loss, collagen loss or loss or hyaluronic acid.
They can be caused by a myriad of factors:
Lack of sleep
Atopic diasthesis – sinus disorders, asthma
Medicines put in the eyes for glaucoma etc.
Immune disorders like dermatomyositis
eye strain due to insufficient sleep, long hours of computer work, etc.
Under eye volume loss and wrinkling due to aging, drastic weight loss
Hormone related disorders like acanthosis nigricans Associated under eye puffiness could be due to :
Water retention as in premenstrual
Excessive salt intake
Undereye fat prolapse
Lymphatic insufficiency or stasis
Treatment of the underlying cause if detected.
Topical hydroquinone, often mixed in some moisturizer other topical agents like kojic acid, ascorbic acid, retinoids, Arbutin, peptides, liquorice etc.
Mesotherapy may be occasionally effective.
Home remedies like milk, potato peel applications are popular.
Chemical peels like Arginine peels, lactic peels etc.
Pigment reduction laser treatments may also be effective depending on the cause. For treatment of blue under eye circles, intense pulsed light therapy or pulse dye laser may be suggested to reduce these circles.
Filler/Fat injections may also be recommended in case of dark circles due to undereye volume loss
Undereye botulinumtox in is advised if there are wrinkles and fine lines under the eyes, causing the darkening.